USA Patriotism! ... "Showcasing Pride of America"USA theme polo shirts, t-shirts, shorts, hats, caps, swimwear, sweatshirts, hoodies, hats, jackets, under garments, and other apparel items

Home - Articles - USA's Birth - Great Patriots - Heroes - Honor Halls - Music - Photos
Poems - Quotes - Reference - Speeches - Stars for Troops - Stories - Student Patriots
Videos - New Content
-
About - Contact - Submit - Partners - Press - CureNow - Donate

USA Store! ... American / Patriotic themed gift products at USA Patriotism!

 

USA Patriotism! YouTube Channel Join / Like the USA Patriotism! Facebook page PinterestUSA Patriotism! On Twitter USA Patriotism! at Tumblr USA Patriotism! at Moptu

Bookmark and Share

Patriotic Article
Military
By Maria Del Carmen Clapp, Ed. D

Collectibles, apparel, and other gifts ... for Marines, Soldiers, Airmen, Sailors, and veterans!Checks with USA, military, and other patriotic designsFree Gifts from The Bradford Exchange Online
 

Today's Youth Are Tomorrows' Leaders
(June 21, 2011)

USA, military, and other patriotic themed pullover and button down Polo shirts

Author's Note: This article (written in April, 2011) is part of my dissertation on the role of the JROTC program in the development of students' leadership skills.

The Need for Youth Leadership Skills Development

One of the challenges that today's high school students face is their misconceptions on leadership skills (Fertmann& Long, 1990).  Many of today's teens do not perceive themselves as potential leaders, assuming that only the popular, attractive, rich, and intelligent possess leadership skills. Traditionally, leadership programs were offered to groups who demonstrated potential for leadership, such as student council representatives, gifted populations, and community group leaders. Youth who did not hold positions of leadership were not exposed to opportunities for leadership experience and training.& Long, 1990).  Many of today's teens do not perceive themselves as potential leaders, assuming that only the popular, attractive, rich, and intelligent possess leadership skills. Traditionally, leadership programs were offered to groups who demonstrated potential for leadership, such as student council representatives, gifted populations, and community group leaders. Youth who did not hold positions of leadership were not exposed to opportunities for leadership experience and training.

The development of a more comprehensive perception of leadership development may facilitate the incorporation of leadership skills into youth daily lives. The notion of encouraging youth to develop a more challenging concept of leadership with the potential to transform them into the leaders of the future has found support in the literature (Gibson & Pasonn, 2003). Ignoring youth attitude development, as an essential element in leadership skill building, might contribute to develop individuals who manipulate rather than lead, which could have ethical, legal, or otherwise undesirable consequences., 2003). Ignoring youth attitude development, as an essential element in leadership skill building, might contribute to develop individuals who manipulate rather than lead, which could have ethical, legal, or otherwise undesirable consequences.

Youth leadership development is defined as . . ..“the ability of young people to impact and make a difference in their home, school, or community by taking on roles of responsibility or meaningful decision-making””(Paul & Lefkovitzz, 2006, p. 3). The need for leadership development is obvious in the shifting demographics of today's society and in the diverse facets of the problems individuals face (Fertmann& Long, 1990; Paul & Lefkovitzz, 2006). Creativity, analytical capacity, and social skills will be pivotal in reaching greatness, especially with compared to individuals at a global level (Covey, 2008). We are experiencing the communications' era, which implies that most of what individuals do today involve information processing and distribution (Shockley--Zalabakk, 2009). Living in such an environment demands continued learning on how to process and use this information to solve problems. Adapting to this environment will require a new set of capabilities and skills, including collaborating with others, being creative, empathetic, able to see the big-picture, recognize patterns, and create and manage meaning (Muldoon, 2004; Shockley--Zalabakk, 2009)., 2009).

Adolescence constitutes a distinctive time in life that unfolds unique challenges and opportunities (Avolioo, Rotundoo, & Walumbwaa, 2009; Center for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDCP), 2004a; Ecceless&& Gootmann, 2002; Larson, Wilson, & Mortimer, 2002). The cognitive, biological, emotional and social changes that youth face during adolescence set the stage for the establishment of behavioral patterns and lifestyle that influence their present and future development (CDCP, 2004a; Ecceless&& Gootmann, 2002; Larson et al., 2002). Adolescence is also a milestone phase in the development of interpersonal relationship skills and leadership skills (Choi, Choi, & An, 2008; Ecceless&& Gootmann, 2002; Larson et al., 2002)., 2002; Larson et al., 2002).

Youth presents great variability when it comes to potential for leadership skills (Covey, 2008). Children's first experiences of leadership often involve the roles of leadership of parents and guardians, as well as the influence of peers, school setting, and their immediate community such as church, sports and youth organizations (Casselll, Huffakerr, Ferrimann, & Tverskyy, 2006; Larson, et al.,  2002)., 2006; Larson, et al.,  2002).

The role of the internet in the engagement of youth in political, social, and civil issues has facilitated the exchange of views from individuals of all ages, social and cultural backgrounds, thus contributing to a diverse online community (Casselllet al., 2006). The term Generation Virtual (Gen V) represents the discount of differences based on age, economic status, gender, and demographics in favor of the views individuals bring (Gartner, 2008).. Unze'ss(2010) article on the impact of Facebook as a powerful cyber tool in encouraging teens to attend a meeting at the St. Cloud City Council to request the creation of a skate plaza illustrates the role of the new communications' technology in moving the masses. Inn Unze'ssarticle, Levi Russell, communication director for the Tea Party Express, stated, “Facebook . . . is one of the most targeted and flexible tools we use. Our supporters are able to really take ownership of events in their area by sharing, discussing, and inviting their friends in a very visual and tangible format” (Unzee, 2010, p. 3A).  The implications from a leadership skill development view is that in the absence of face-to-face contact, linguistic styles with emphasis of group goals, as well as persuasion, collaboration, and listening skills are even more essential in the acquisition of cyber leadership skills (Casselllet al., 2006).et al., 2006).

Covey's (2008) Seven Habits of Highly Effective People presents his philosophy on leadership to educate children to make good decisions, get along with others, take responsibility for their own actions, and manage time effectively. These universal skills are essential in ensuring children's present and future success in life. In this current fast growing economy, access to factual knowledge is within reach to many, thus it is no longer enough to discriminate between individuals who will succeed and individuals who will not.

Today's parents want their children to think independently, be responsible for their lives, take initiative, and show respect for diversity (Covey, 2008; Paul & Lefkovitzz, 2006). The concepts of competence and character capture the essence of these skills. Nowadays, business leaders recognize the price to pay for employees who demonstrate deficits in these two areas and seek school support in the development of these skills. Great organizations emphasize engrained values such as . . . “character, work ethic, basic intelligence, dedication to fulfilling commitment . . .” over education level, knowledge and experience, which can be acquired (Collins, 2002, p. 51)., 2006). The concepts of competence and character capture the essence of these skills. Nowadays, business leaders recognize the price to pay for employees who demonstrate deficits in these two areas and seek school support in the development of these skills. Great organizations emphasize engrained values such as . . . “character, work ethic, basic intelligence, dedication to fulfilling commitment . . .” over education level, knowledge and experience, which can be acquired (Collins, 2002, p. 51).

Research on leadership development focuses primarily on adult leadership from a developmental and practical perspective (MacNeill, 2006). Reference to youth leadership development is often presented from a futuristic view, emphasizing the need to assist youth now so they will develop leadership skills as adults. From an educational context, studies on leadership emphasize the need to incorporate leadership development as essential element in today's youth education (Covey, 2008; Fertmann& Long, 1990; MacNeill, 2006; Mohamed & Wheeler, 2001; Morgan & Rudd, 2006; Paul & Lefkovitzz, 2006; Wallinn, 2003).

Research suggest that adolescents who engage in youth development and leadership experiences often perform well academically, are involved in their community, and transition to adulthood successfully (Covey, 2008; National Alliance for Secondary Education and Transition, (NASET), 2005; National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth, (NCWD/Youth), 2010; Paul & Lefkovitzz, 2006). Much of the success of tomorrow's society will depend on the avenues used today to facilitate youth development into productive citizens (Covey, 2008; Larson et al., 2002). In today's global economy, we cannot afford to wait for our youth to become adults and be successful before they are shown how to structure their life, set goals, make the right decisions, be responsible, and advocate for their needs early on in life (Covey, 2008; Fertmann& Long, 1990; Michelsenn, Zafff& Hair, 2002). Leadership skills development may not prepare them to take over a corporation upon high school graduation, but will facilitate basic decision-making, raise self-confidence by being proactive, taking initiative, and developing plans for the future.& Hair, 2002). Leadership skills development may not prepare them to take over a corporation upon high school graduation, but will facilitate basic decision-making, raise self-confidence by being proactive, taking initiative, and developing plans for the future.

Traditionally, the literature on adult leadership was often associated to specific traits and abilities needed to become effective leaders, whereas youth leaders often emerged from community-based organizations with which youth identify (Casselllet al., 2006). Today's diverse communities need a new generation of leaders to create local partnerships and manage change (Tabb & Montesii, 2000, as cited by Ricketts, Bruce & Ewing, 2008). Emerging leaders will need to take leadership roles to succeed in this dynamic environment (Ricketts et al., 2008). Youth leadership development is critical in preparing individuals to take on these awaiting challenges (Blackwell, Cummins, Townsend & Cummings, 2007)., 2000, as cited by Ricketts, Bruce & Ewing, 2008). Emerging leaders will need to take leadership roles to succeed in this dynamic environment (Ricketts et al., 2008). Youth leadership development is critical in preparing individuals to take on these awaiting challenges (Blackwell, Cummins, Townsend & Cummings, 2007).

Youth Development and Youth Leadership Development

The definitions of youth development and youth leadership development tend to be ambiguous and indistinct (Catalano, Berglund, Ryan,, Lonczakk, & Hawkins, 2002; Greimann&& Addingtonn, 2008). The concepts of youth development and youth leadership development have been interchangeable, despite being two separate notions (Edelman, Gill,, Comerfordd, Larson, & Hare, 2004). Youth leadership development is an integral part of youth overall development. In fact, since the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) was approved in 1998, youth development and youth leadership have become essential components in youth workforce development programs., Larson, & Hare, 2004). Youth leadership development is an integral part of youth overall development. In fact, since the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) was approved in 1998, youth development and youth leadership have become essential components in youth workforce development programs.

This shift toward a more comprehensive and positive conception of youth development was a collaborative effort from educators, administrators, practitioners, and policy makers (Lerner, Dowling, & Anderson, 2003).

The Community Network for Youth Development (CNYD) (2006, � 17), states, “ youth development refers to the natural process through which all young people seek ways to meet their basic physical and social needs and to build knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in adolescence and young adulthood”. Positive youth development is rooted in the perception of youth as resources to be explored rather than a problem to be resolved; therefore, the focus is to “explore the strengths within all young people” (Lerner et al., 2003, p. 172).

The National Collaboration for Youth Members defined youth development as:

A process which prepares young people to meet the challenges of adolescence and adulthood through a coordinated, progressive series of activities and experiences which help them to become socially, morally, emotionally, physically, and cognitively competent. Positive youth development addresses the broader developmental needs of youth, in contrast to deficit-based models which focus solely on youth problems. (National Assembly, 1994, p. 11)

There has been a growing interest in positive youth development because of research findings on predictors of positive and negative outcomes. These predictors include interpersonal, family, school, and community relationships, as well as relationships with supportive adults (Catalano et al., 2002). Many programs dedicated to youth development, however, fail to develop standardized measures that evaluate the whole individual, do not concentrate on risk and protective factors influencing child development, and lack follow-up methods to monitor long-term youth outcomes, which would promote a deeper understanding of program effectiveness. These concerns severely limit programs' ability to effectively link specific strategies to youth outcomes. Furthermore, the divergence between youth developmental needs and the organizational structures of most public youth-oriented institutions is evident (Costello,, Toless, Spielbergerr& Wynn, 2000).& Wynn, 2000).

There seems to be a necessity for youth development programs to target youth's needs as whole individuals within the context in which youth live and learn and to be opportunity-based, which facilitate youth overall development, maturity, and potential (Ecceless, & Gootmann, 2002; Kress, 2005; Heinsohnn& Lewis, 1995; Paul & Lefkovitzz, 2006).  When youth's needs are successfully met, the likelihood that positive qualities such attachment ad intimacy, problem solving and competency, discipline and confidence, and empathy and altruism is increased (Kress, 2005). When these needs are met through negative channels, qualities such promiscuity, risk seeking, deceitfulness, manipulation, defiance, and co-dependency are likely to develop. If their needs are unmet, qualities such as rejection, distrust, fearfulness, submission, irresponsibility, helplessness, selfishness, and antisocial tendencies may develop.

Leadership Development and Emotional Intelligence

Social and emotional capabilities have four times more weight in determining success than the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) (Merkowitzz & Earnest, 2006). Emotional Intelligence (EI) as the ability to be conscious of one's and others' thinking and action processes within the framework of social and emotional skills (Saloveyy & Mayer, 1990). The development of these skills is progressive and dynamic, suggesting that individuals can be trained to develop and enhance these skills that are linked to individuals' potential performance (Merkowitzz & Earnest, 2006)

EI training is relevant to youth leadership skill development because of its success in predicting ability in terms of how individuals apply their knowledge, use common sense, and connect with others when solving challenges. EI training is critical to leadership development because it enhances communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, conflict resolution, and goal- setting skills.

From a business perspective, the importance of EI training lies on the premise that unchallenged stress, poor and unsuccessful relationships, and lack of opportunities for self development are costly for organizations. Stedman andd Andenoroo(2007) pointed out the positive association between EI and critical thinking ability; the more individuals are predisposed to evaluate situations critically, the more emotionally equipped they become to make intelligent decisions. Educational programs face the challenge of preparing individuals for the today's global demands, including organizational needs. Accentuation of the role of emotional intelligence and critical thinking skills in personal and professional success is undisputable.(2007) pointed out the positive association between EI and critical thinking ability; the more individuals are predisposed to evaluate situations critically, the more emotionally equipped they become to make intelligent decisions. Educational programs face the challenge of preparing individuals for the today's global demands, including organizational needs. Accentuation of the role of emotional intelligence and critical thinking skills in personal and professional success is undisputable.

The benefits of reflecting on youth' leadership experiences and their connection with youth's larger context of their community and personal life are supported by research (MacGregorr, 2007). Reflection provides opportunity to critically think back and learn from the experiences in a meaningful way, as well as a chance to discuss, interpret, and share personal views with others. Reflection provides several benefits:, 2007). Reflection provides opportunity to critically think back and learn from the experiences in a meaningful way, as well as a chance to discuss, interpret, and share personal views with others. Reflection provides several benefits:

  • Offers opportunities to establish expectations for oneself and others involved in the experiences.

  • Increases insight about the limitations and potential of these experiences.

  • Fosters a sense of accomplishment and a pattern of self-appreciation.

  • Enhances performance upon the realization of the impact of their contributions.

  • Provides closure after the experiences have ended (McPherson, 1991, as cited by MacGregorr, 2007; Roberts, 2008).

Reflection can be carried out through journaling, online discussions, reading,drawing, acting, and using photos (MacGregorr, 2007). Reflective exercises are of value to leadership development as they foment understanding of the role of youth as citizen leaders, thus contributing to reevaluation and strengthening of their leadership skills., 2007). Reflective exercises are of value to leadership development as they foment understanding of the role of youth as citizen leaders, thus contributing to reevaluation and strengthening of their leadership skills.

Despite the efforts in evaluating outcomes of youth development programs, the literature showed limited number of studies in the effectiveness of specific program methods and procedures (Catalano et al., 2002; Wright, 2008). Although the benefits that youth programs provide to youth and their development are indisputable, youth-oriented organizations need to consider youth's developmental needs and the voluntary nature of many activities (Ecceless, & Gootmann, 2002; Heinsohnn & Lewis, 1995). Program flexibility that reflects the dynamism of youth's interests and needs is paramount in ensuring youth continued involvement, and thus program success.

Youth Leadership Development in Schools

The purpose of providing an education for youth is to teach valuable skills, which will assist individuals in achieving a successful and productive life. Supporters of formal leadership education are making efforts to substantiate the insertion of leadership development programs in colleges and high schools. However, these types of programs face several challenges because their efficacy and relevance has found limited empirical support (DiPaoloo, 2008)., 2008).

Kouzessand Posner (2002) discussed three approaches to leadership development: trial and error, people, and education. Trial and error refers to learning to lead by doing and assessing results to obtain the best outcomes. Holding roles that entail responsibility and leadership provide learning opportunities while doing; peers and adults become sources of guidance, support, and feedback in the learning process. Formal leadership education and training is the third avenue towards leadership development. This last option can be significant for the students who may not think of themselves as leaders or who are not engaged in school and community activities.and Posner (2002) discussed three approaches to leadership development: trial and error, people, and education. Trial and error refers to learning to lead by doing and assessing results to obtain the best outcomes. Holding roles that entail responsibility and leadership provide learning opportunities while doing; peers and adults become sources of guidance, support, and feedback in the learning process. Formal leadership education and training is the third avenue towards leadership development. This last option can be significant for the students who may not think of themselves as leaders or who are not engaged in school and community activities.

 here have been some suggestions to incorporate training in leadership skills in public education through vocational courses and associations, student councils, and teen-related clubs (Morgan & Rudd, 2006). It seems logical to assume that, if the ultimate goal of education is to develop responsible citizens, then student leadership needs to be embedded not only within the academic context, but also as part of schools' culture (Hay & Dempsterr, 1998; Wallinn, 2003). Under this premise, all stakeholders in education, including students, should be involved in all the instances related to decision making and leadership, which conveys students' ownership of their decisions related to their education and to the democratic process. Despite the growing interest and need to establish leadership curriculum in schools, a national curriculum on leadership skills is not yet existent.

Leadership Skills Development through Community Involvement

Most of the youth serving organizations focus on the development of leadership skills through progressive community engagement (Catalano et al., 2002; Ecceless, & Gootmann, 2002; Michelsenn, Zafff& Hair, 2002; Paul & Lefkovitzz, 2006). One of the foundations supporting community-based youth development programs is the notion of cumulative effects of exposure to multiple opportunities and resources for youth development (Benson & Saito, 2000)., 2006). One of the foundations supporting community-based youth development programs is the notion of cumulative effects of exposure to multiple opportunities and resources for youth development (Benson & Saito, 2000).

According to NASET (2005), leadership development engages youth in becoming aware of their strengths and limitations, establishes personal and vocational goals, and builds self-confidence and motivation to achieve these goals. Leadership development further allows youth to build supportive networks through participation in community experiences, which facilitates social change and build youth leaders as role models (Ecceless, & Gootmann, 2002; Paul & Lefkovitzz, 2006; Wallinn 2003). 

Research suggests that leadership notions and skills can be learned (Duke University Talent Identification Program, 2008). It is possible for parents, caregivers, and educators to identify early signs of leadership potential in their children when they:

  • Taking responsibility

  • Sense of independency

  • Taking charge of other children and activities

  • Engaging with all sorts of people

  • Goal-oriented

  • Planning ahead to accomplish goals

  • Displaying good communication skills

  • Receptive to the concerns and needs of others

  • Capable of making decisions

  • Self-sufficient

  • Able to promote positive change. (Duke University Talent Identification Program, 2008).

Congruent with today's trends in leadership theory and development, Bruce, Nicola and Menkee(2006) emphasized the need for providers of youth leadership to tailor their programs toward this generation's type of learners, characterized by an experiential and hands-on orientation toward learning. Under this premise, there is a need for youth to be fully engaged in their learning through interesting and thought provoking activities that demonstrate the application of these skills into their individual experiences. Inclusion of this emerging group of stakeholders' needs, that is, the youth for which the program is intended needs to be a priority (Dufaultt, 1999; Ecceless & Gootmann, 2002; Nail, 2007; Wallinn, 2003; Wright, 2008). Studies that seek to investigate participants' perception of the influence of a program or event contribute to program leaders' greater understanding of the impact that a particular program has on the participants, and thus make the necessary adjustments to reflect the changing nature of human needs and interests (Kleonn & Rinehart, 1998).

Misconceptions about Leadership Development

Little attention has been given to some misconceptions from youth and from adults about youth leadership development, which may create substantial challenges for program implementation and success (Beresford, 2010; Paul & Lefkovitzz, 2006). From the youth leadership ministry context, one misconception alludes to focus on obtaining all of the answers instead of asking the right questions, within the appropriate context and at the right time. In this regard, skills such as active listening and probing encourage others to reach their own deductions. The second misconception refers to the emphasis on goal attainment rather than in learning to become sensitive to the culturally and environmentally aspects of leadership process and to adjust beliefs and attitudes accordingly. As Beresford (2010, p.1) states, “youth leadership is about creating environments to engage human beings rather than human doings”. The third misconception relates to the need to build a place where students are indoctrinated through fellowship, instead of building on a sense of belonging before believing. Assisting others to honestly assess where they stand today and empower them to continue to advance in their development is the channel through which individuals assimilate information necessary for personal transformation. These misconceptions expose the need to set aside fundamental differences in attitudes and beliefs in order to enhance communication and distribute power and accountability (Paul & Lefkovitzz, 2006).

The termm adultismmrefers to common adult behaviors and perceptions of youth which convey the assumption that adults are superior to youth and have the right to impose on youth without their consent, thus being perceived as objects.. Adultismmfurther implies the idea that teens lack of awareness and experience to make productive contributions, thus hindering adults' capability to visualize youth in meaningful roles, which influences the establishment and success of youth leadership-related activities.further implies the idea that teens lack of awareness and experience to make productive contributions, thus hindering adults' capability to visualize youth in meaningful roles, which influences the establishment and success of youth leadership-related activities. 

Conclusions

As the literature in youth leadership development suggests, failure to include youth's input in youth programming not only results in missing a chance to benefit from fresh approaches to youth issues, but also may result in the creation of programs that do not reflect the needs of those for which they are intended, thus contributing to not only program failure but ultimately, youth segregation.

The present job market is highly competitive; more and more individuals seeking employment possess higher levels of education but not necessarily the leadership skills such as character, attention to detail, work ethics, commitment, and self-discipline required to be productive citizens. Reaching out to youth advocates, community leaders, educators, administrators, and legislators to emphasize the criticality and urgency to invest in youth leadership development programs in the form of financial support, mentorship and partnership programs- to teach specific skills related to be successful in their business- will be a starting point.

In today's schools, the reflection of educational, social, emotional, and financial needs are more obvious than ever. While leadership development programs may not eradicate these societal concerns, their establishment and continued support may be the only opportunity for many youth dealing with these situations to learn basic skills, find sense of belonging, a sense of purpose, excel academically, be leaders in their communities, and, thus, become agents of change.

REFERENCES

olioio, B. J.,, Rotundo, M, & Walumbwa, F. (2009) - Early life experiences as determinants of leadership role occupancy: the importance of parental influence and rule breaking behavior. The Leadership Quarterly, 20, pp. 329-342. Retrieved March 125, 2010, from http://www.rotman.utoronto.ca/newthinking/rotundoleadership.pdf/newthinking/rotundoleadership.pdf

Benson, P. L., & Saito, R. N. (2000) -The scientific foundations of youth development.The scientific foundations of youth development.

Youth Development: Issues, Challenges and Directions --Retrieved August 8, 2010, fromRetrieved August 8, 2010, from http://www.ppv.org/ppv/publications/assets/74_publication.pdf/ppv/publications/assets/74_publication.pdf

Beresford, V. (2010) --3 misconceptions about youth ministry leadership. RetrieveddAugust1, 2010, from,August1, 2010, from, http:///www.simplyyouthministry.comm/from-the-field-2.html

Blackwell, C., Cummins, R., Townsend, C., & Cummings, S. (2007) --Assessinggperceived student leadership skill development in an academic leadership development program. Association of Leadership Educators Inc., Journal of Leadership Education, Winter, 6(1). Retrieved on March 26, 2010, fromperceived student leadership skill development in an academic leadership development program. Association of Leadership Educators Inc., Journal of Leadership Education, Winter, 6(1). Retrieved on March 26, 2010, from http:///web.ebscohost.comweb.ebscohost.com

Bruce, J. A, Nicola, S., & Menkee, T.  (2006) --Listening to the youth voice in planninggleadership development program. Journal of Extension, December, 44 (6). Retrieved on March 8, 2010, from:leadership development program. Journal of Extension, December, 44 (6). Retrieved on March 8, 2010, from: http://www.joe.org/joe/2006december/tt6.php/joe/2006december/tt6.php 

Casselll, J.,, Huffaker, D., Ferriman, K., & Tversky, D. (2006) -- The language of online leadership: gender and youth engagement on the internet. Developmental Psychology, 42 (3), pp. 436-449. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from http://search.ebscohost.comsearch.ebscohost.com

Catalano, R. F., Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J.A.,, Lonczakk, H. S., & Hawkins, J. D. (2002) --Positive youth development in the United States: research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Prevention & Treatment, 5 (15). Retrieved March 10, 2010, fromPositive youth development in the United States: research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Prevention & Treatment, 5 (15). Retrieved March 10, 2010, from http://search.ebscohost.comsearch.ebscohost.com

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) (2004a) -- Executive Summary -Improving the Health of Adolescents & Young Adults: A Guide for States and Communities. Retrieved on February 13, 2010 from,Improving the Health of Adolescents & Young Adults: A Guide for States and Communities. Retrieved on February 13, 2010 from, http://www.cdc.govwww.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/nationalinitiative/guide.htm

hoi, T., Choi, M., & An, J. (2008) --Mediating effect of interpersonal relationshipMediating effect of interpersonal relationship skills among a sense of humor, humor style, and leadership skill inn koreannadolescents. American Psychological Association, Convention Presentation. Retrieved on March 2, 2010, fromadolescents. American Psychological Association, Convention Presentation. Retrieved on March 2, 2010, from http:///search.ebscohost.com

Collins, J. (2002) --Good to great. New York, N.Y: Harper Business.Good to great. New York, N.Y: Harper Business.

Community Network for Youth Development (CNYD) (20066) --Retrieved August7, 20100from,from, http:///www.cnyd.orgg/definitions/index.php#resiliency  

Costello, J.,, Toless, M., & Wynn, J. (19988) --Promoting youth development innorganizations that serve adolescents: the implications of organizational factors. Youth Development: Issues, Challenges and Directions. Retrieved August 8, 2010, fromorganizations that serve adolescents: the implications of organizational factors. Youth Development: Issues, Challenges and Directions. Retrieved August 8, 2010, from http://www.ppv.org/ppv/publications/assets/74_publication.pdf/ppv/publications/assets/74_publication.pdf

Covey, S. R. (20088) -- The leader in me. Free Press. Franklin Covey Co., New York, NY10020.10020. 

DiPaolo, D. G. (20088) --Echoes of leadership education: reflections on failure, forgetting,,and our future. Association of Leadership Educators Inc., Journal of Leadership Education, Summer, 7 (1). Retrieved on March 26, 2010, fromand our future. Association of Leadership Educators Inc., Journal of Leadership Education, Summer, 7 (1). Retrieved on March 26, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.comweb.ebscohost.com

Dufault, Y. (19999) --Kids who care: an action research project designed to build studenttleadership. Markham District High School, Ontario, Canada. Retrieved March 10th, 2010 from,leadership. Markham District High School, Ontario, Canada. Retrieved March 10th, 2010 from, http:///gse.gmu.eduresearchh/tr/articles/care/tr/articles/care  

Duke University Talent Identification Program(20088) --Developing Leadership PotentiallRetrieved July 31, 2010, fromRetrieved July 31, 2010, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Developing//reference/article/Ref_Developing/

Ecceless, J., & GootmanGootman, J. A. (2002) -- Board on Children, Youth and Families Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2002.  

Edelman, A., Gill, P.,, Comerfordd, K., Larson, M., & Hare, R. (20044) --YouthhDevelopment & Youth Leadership. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth, June. Retrieved March 25 2010, fromDevelopment & Youth Leadership. National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth, June. Retrieved March 25 2010, from http:///www.ncwd-youth.infoo/assets/background/YouthDevelopment.pdfDevelopment.pdf  

Fertmann, C. I., & Long, J. A. (19900) --All students are leaders. School Counselor, May, 377(5). Retrieved July 22, 2009, from(5). Retrieved July 22, 2009, from http:///search.ebscohost.comsearch.ebscohost.com  

Gartner (2008) Gen V defies traditional demographics. Retrieved March 14, 2010 from, http://www.marketingcharts.com/interactive/generation-v-defies-traditionademographics-5/interactive/generation-v-defies-traditionademographics-5

Gibson, F. W., & Pasonn, A. (20033) --Levels of leadership: developing leaders through newLevels of leadership: developing leaders through new models. Journal of Education for Business. September/October, 79 (1), p. 23-27. Retrieved on July22, 2009, from http:///search.ebscohost.comsearch.ebscohost.com 

Hay, I., & Dempsterr, N. (19988) --Student leadership development through generallclassroom. activities. Curriculum Inquiry, 28, pp. 57-79. Retrieved August 6, 2010, fromclassroom. activities. Curriculum Inquiry, 28, pp. 57-79. Retrieved August 6, 2010, from http:///espace.library.uq.edu.auu/eserv/UQ:8619/Student_leadersh.pdf  

Heinsohnn, A. L., & Lewis, R. B. (19955) --Why do teens drop out? : a developmental viewwJournal Of Extension, February, 33 (1). Retrieved July 31, 2010, fromJournal Of Extension, February, 33 (1). Retrieved July 31, 2010, from http:///www.joe.orgg/joe/1995february/comm1.php  

Kleonn, S., & Rinehart, S. (19988) --Leadership skill development of teen leaders. Journal offExtension, June, 36 (3). Retrieved July 26, 2009, fromExtension, June, 36 (3). Retrieved July 26, 2009, from http:///www.joe.orgg/index.php  

KouzesKouzess, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (20022) --The leadership challenge. San Francisco:: JosseyJossey-Bass.  

Kress, C. (2005) Essential Elements of 4-H Youth Development. National 4-HH HeadquarterHeadquarterCooperativeeState Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES), USDA. Retrieved July 30, 2010,State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES), USDA. Retrieved July 30, 2010, http://www.national4-hheadquarters.gov/library/elements.pptelements.ppt  

Larson, R. W., Wilson, S., & Mortimer J. T. (20022) --Conclusions: Adolescents''preparation for the future. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12 (1), pp.159-166. Retrieved March 29, 2010, frompreparation for the future. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12 (1), pp.159-166. Retrieved March 29, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.comweb.ebscohost.com  

Lerner, R. M., Dowling, E. M., & Anderson, P. M. (20033) --Positive youth development::thriving as the basis of personhood and civil society. Appliedd DevelopmentalSciencee, 7(3), pp. 172-180. Retrieved July 28, 2010, from http:///www.olc.eduu/local_links/socialwork/OnlineLibrary//local_links/socialwork/OnlineLibrary/  

MacGregorr, M. G. (20077) --Designing meaningful reflection. Resources for Preparing aaNew Generation of Everyday Leaders. Retrieved March 24, from, http://New Generation of Everyday Leaders. Retrieved March 24, from, http:// www.youthleadership.comm/reflection.html  

MacNeill, C.A. (20066) --Bridging generations: applying “adult” leadership theories toBridging generations: applying “adult” leadership theories to youth leadership development. New Directions for Youth Development, Spring, No. 109. Retrieved February 20, 2010, from: http:///web.ebscohost.comweb.ebscohost.com 

Merkowitzz, R., & Earnest, G. W. (20066) --Emotional intelligence: a pathway to self-understanding and improved leadership capabilities. Journal of Extension, August, 44 (4). Retrieved March 9, 2010, fromunderstanding and improved leadership capabilities. Journal of Extension, August, 44 (4). Retrieved March 9, 2010, from http:///www.joe.orgg/joe/2006august/iw3.php/joe/2006august/iw3.php  

MichelsenMichelsenn, E.,, ZaffZaff, J., & Hair, E. (2002) -- Civic engagement programs and youth development: a synthesis. Washington, District of Columbia, US: Child Trends. Retrieved March 31, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.comweb.ebscohost.com 

Mohamed, I. A., & Wheeler, W. (20011) --Broadening the bounds of youth development::youth as engaged citizens. The Ford Foundation. The Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development. Retrieved July 30, 2010, fromyouth as engaged citizens. The Ford Foundation. The Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from http:///www.servicelearning.orgg/library/resource/5497  

Morgan, A. C., & Rudd, R. D. (20066) --Leadership Curriculum used by high schoollagricultural science instructors: a national study. Retrieved March 13, 2010, fromagricultural science instructors: a national study. Retrieved March 13, 2010, from http:///www.leadershipeducators.orgwww.leadershipeducators.org  

Muldoon, S. (20044) --Is symbolic interactionism the fifth paradigm of leadership. WorkinggPaper Series. Victoria University of Technology / School of Management..On-line journal retrieved Wednesday, August 29, 2007 from E-Global Library atOn-line journal retrieved Wednesday, August 29, 2007 from E-Global Library at http:///www.egloballibrary.comm/egl/jsp/home/login.  

Nail, T. (20077) --Project demonstrating excellence. Evaluation of life effectiveness and leadership development in a challenge day program for high school students. (Doctoral dissertation: Union Institute & University, 2007), Cincinnati, Ohio. Retrieved August1, 2010, fromProject demonstrating excellence. Evaluation of life effectiveness and leadership development in a challenge day program for high school students. (Doctoral dissertation: Union Institute & University, 2007), Cincinnati, Ohio. Retrieved August1, 2010, from http:///www.challengeday.orgg/downloads/PDE-Challengeday07.doc  

National Alliance for Secondary Education and Transition (NASET) (20055) --Youthhdevelopment and youth leadership. Retrieved March 24, 2010, from:development and youth leadership. Retrieved March 24, 2010, from: http:///www.nasetalliance.orgg/youthdev/index.htm/youthdev/index.htm  

National Assembly of the National Collaboration for Youth Members. (1994) --BuildingBuilding resiliency, pp. 11-14. Retrieved July 31, 2010 from http://www.nydic.orgwww.nydic.org.  

National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth (20100) --Youthhdevelopment – youth leadership research base. Retrieved March 25 2010, fromdevelopment – youth leadership research base. Retrieved March 25 2010, from http:///www.ncwd-youthleadershipresearchbase.mhtwww.ncwd-youthleadershipresearchbase.mht  

Paul, A. & Lefkovitzz, B. (20066) --Engaging youth: a how-to guide for creatinggopportunities for young people to participate, lead and succeed. Reach Program. A program of Sierra Health Foundation. Retrieved August 1, 2010, fromopportunities for young people to participate, lead and succeed. Reach Program. A program of Sierra Health Foundation. Retrieved August 1, 2010, from http:///www.sierrahealth.orgg/assets/files/reach/Engaging_Youth_Report.pdf/assets/files/reach/Engaging_Youth_Report.pdf

Ricketts, K. G., Bruce, J. A., & Ewing, J. C. (20088) --How today's undergraduate studentsHow today's undergraduate students see themselves as tomorrow's socially responsible leaders. Association of Leadership Educators Inc., Journal of Leadership Education, Summer, 7 (1). Retrieved on March 26, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.comweb.ebscohost.com 

Roberts, C. (20088) --Developing future leaders: the role of reflection in the classroom.Developing future leaders: the role of reflection in the classroom. Association of Leadership Educators Inc., Journal of Leadership Education, Summer, 7(1). Retrieved on March 26, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.comweb.ebscohost.com 

Saloveyy, P., & Mayer, J. D. (19900) --Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, anddPersonality, 9, pp. 185-211.Personality, 9, pp. 185-211. 

Stedman, N., & Andenoroo, A. (20077) --Identification of relationships between emotionalIdentification of relationships between emotional intelligence skill & critical thinking disposition in undergraduate leadership students. Journal of Leadership Education, Winter, 6 (1). Retrieved March 31, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.comweb.ebscohost.com 

Shockley--Zalabakk, P. (20099) --Fundamentals of organizational communication..Knowledge, sensitivity, skills, values. (7th Ed.). Pearson Education, Inc. 

Unzee, D. (2010, March 266) --Facebook helps movements ignite. USA Today, pp.3A.Facebook helps movements ignite. USA Today, pp.3A. 

Wallin, D. (20033) --Student leadership and democratic schools: a case study. NationallAssociation of Secondary School Principals. NASSP Bulletin, 01 Sep. 2003: 55. Retrieved August 5, 2010, fromAssociation of Secondary School Principals. NASSP Bulletin, 01 Sep. 2003: 55. Retrieved August 5, 2010, from http:///proquest.umi.comm/  

Wright, D. (20088) --"For us, by us": young people's leadership, participation and agency"For us, by us": young people's leadership, participation and agency development. (Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, 2008).  UMI Microform 3319204. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from http:/proquest.umi.com//

By Maria Del Carmen Clapp, Ed. D
Copyright 2011

Comment on this article

USA Gifts Store! ... over 1,000 American / Patriotic themed products at USA Patriotism!USA / Americana theme ... polo shirts, t-shirts, shorts, hats, caps, swimwear, sweatshirts, hoodies, hats, jackets, under garments, and other apparel itemsAmerican Pride: Poems Honoring America and Her Patriots! by David G. Bancroft
Special Offers - FREE Gifts with Purchase
Home - Articles - USA's Birth - Great Patriots - Heroes - Honor Halls - Music - Photos
Poems - Quotes - Reference - Speeches - Stars for Troops - Stories - Student Patriots
Videos - New Content - About - Contact - Submit - Partners - Press - CureNow - Donate
USA Store! ... American / Patriotic themed gift products at USA Patriotism!

Google Custom USA Patriotism! Search

 

Zoom Custom USA Patriotism! Search